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Astăzi, 4 februarie, este Ziua Mondială a Luptei Împotriva Cancerului, iar cu această ocazie, vrem să aducem în atenție câteva informații utile despre factorii favorizanți care duc la instalarea acestei patologii la nivelul cavității orale, dar și care sunt metodele de prevenție. ?

I. Fumatul ?

Tot mai multe studii arată faptul că fumatul reprezintă un factor de risc major în cadrul parodontopatiilor (afecțiuni ale țesuturilor de susținere a dinților). Pe lângă acest risc este cunoscut faptul că fumatul este unul din factorii favorizanți ai apariției cancerului oral.

Nicotina, trabucul, tutunul de pipă sunt nocive atât pentru plămâni, cât și pentru cavitatea bucală. Fumatul favorizează scăderea imunității, ceea ce va determina ca în urma unei intervenții chirurgicale, recuperarea să fie mai anevoioasă.

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Un lucru interesant este faptul că tutunul consumat în diferite forme are un efect diferit asupra cancerului oral, astfel fumatul țigaretelor pare să aibă un efect mai nociv decât trabucul sau pipa.

Tutunul determină distrugerea celulelor din mucoasa orală și oro-faringiană cu formarea unor celule anormale în cursul reparației tisulare.

Unele cercetări au demonstrat prezența anumitor substanțe chimice, reprezentate de gudroanele rezultate în urma arderii tutunului și a foiței de țigară. În acestea au fost identificate aproximativ 12 hidrocarburi aromatice policiclice cu efect carcinogen.

Riscul apariției cancerului este legat de numărul de țigări fumate pe zi precum și de perioada de timp în care s-a practicat fumatul. Astfel, riscul unui fumator de a dezvolta cancer oral va fi egal cu al unui nefumator abia după 10 ani de la renunțarea la fumat.

Cancerul oral poate fi prevenit, iar prevenția și depistarea timpurie sunt doua metode importante și eficiente prin care se poate evita această afecțiune. Ca metodă de prevenție, prin consumul cât mai redus al nicotinei, ideal renunțarea definitivă la fumat sunt reduse riscurile asupra sănătății orale și generale.

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II. Alcoolul și riscul de cancer 

Pe lângă fumat, consumul excesiv de băuturi alcoolice ? reprezintă un alt factor favorizant în apariția cancerului oral. 

?Consumul de alcool duce la un dezechilibru al balanței bacteriilor benefice orale și poate crește riscul pentru o varietate de afecțiuni.

După anumite cercetări cavitatea bucală este colonizată de o mulțime de bacterii benefice organismului. Multe dintre aceste microorganisme pot juca un rol important în ceea ce privește sistemul imunitar, digestia nutritivă și posibila prevenire a apariției cancerului bucal.

?Când poate apărea un dezechilibru al bacteriilor benefice și care sunt consecințele?

Acest dezechilibru poate apărea când bacteriile benefice sunt înlocuite cu bacterii dăunătoare?, rezultate în urma consumului excesiv de alcool. Astfel, consecințele nu întârzie să apară:

-afecțiunile parodontale

-bolile de inimă?

-cancerului localizat la cap sau la gât.

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Cancerul oral poate fi prevenit, iar prevenția și depistarea timpurie sunt doua metode importante și eficiente prin care se poate evita această afecțiune. Ca metodă de prevenție, consumul cât mai redus de alcool, ideal renunțarea la consumul excesiv de băuturi alcoolice, fiind reduse astfel riscurile asupra sănătății orale și generale.

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